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Herbs, Oils, and Hoodoo Hands

Here's a list, or a sort of glossary, of various sacred herbs and other materials used in magical traditions from the ancient Egyptian to the medieval European to the folk-magic practitioners of today. Be warned: this stuff works.

African Dream Root or Silene capensis: This obscure flowering species is regarded by shamans of the South African region as a type of "Ubulawu" or medicinal root that they call "Undela Ziimhlophe," which translates literally as "white paths" or white ways." It is suspected that this sacred plant's oneirongenic, or dream-inducing activity is likely due to triterpenoid saponins contained within its roots. Relatively small amounts of root (250 mg range) are reported to be active. The plant exerts only minimal alterations in waking consciousness, yet the effects upon the dream state can be profound. On Supernatural it was said to, when drank with something of the person's (hair, sweat, etcetera) allows that person to dream-walk or walk around in another person's dreams.

Agrimony: Powerful defensive herb that not only can prevent hexes and banish evil spirits, but often will reverse the effects of a spell onto the caster. In addition, agrimony can be used in a potion to induce a deep sleep almost indistinguishable from death.

Alfalfa: Traditionally used in combination with other herbs to bring good fortune. Not extremely powerful on its own, but very useful when added to charms against poverty or bad luck. In Celtic traditions, alfalfa is often burned and the ashes scattered around the outside of a house against poverty and hunger.

Allspice: Like alfalfa, more of a catalyst than an individual power. It’s often used as an element of charms involving money and luck. Allspice has an interesting association with creativity and in some traditions is used to spark a brainstorm or artistic inspiration.

Amaranth: Known for its protective abilities and for use in calling spirits. A whole amaranth plant, uprooted under a full moon and then worn under the shirt, is a powerful protection against physical attacks. The dried flowers are useful in calling the dead.

Angelica: Also known as “archangel,” angelica root is very powerful in protective functions. Sprinkled in the four corners of a house, it protects against evil, and it is a powerful talisman when carried on a person. Used at the beginning and ending of rituals, it has a strong blessing effect. Also associated with good luck, particularly in certain native American traditions, where it was used to bring fortune in gambling. Smoking the leaves can cause visions.

Anise: Raises vibrations to the highest possible psychic level. Good for bringing about changes in attitude (refocusing), and for astral travel, dreams, crystal gazing, and meditation. In a pillow, it is said to keep away nightmares. For any type of clairvoyance or divination or mental exercises.

Anisette (liquor): Is used during voodoo initiations to anoint the head.

Anointing oil: The biblical traditions of anointing with oil stems from a specific oil mentioned in Exodus 30, which was composed of cinnamon, calamus, cassia, and myrrh, infused in olive oil. This oil is an important element in the performance of certain protective rituals.

Asafetida: Also known as devil’s dung or stinking gum for its odor, asafetida is a very powerful protectant. When burned, it will drive away evil and dispel spirits. It can be used in various rituals of exorcism. It is also said to attract wolves.

Balm of Gilead: Also known as balsam of Mecca. A resinous gum extracted from the balsam poplar tree. Known for its protective and healing properties since biblical times.

Barberry: A dangerous herb, more suited to dark magic than positive uses. When sprinkled around a house, will provoke argument and bitterness. This effect can be reversed if barberry is combined with bay leaves and vetivert, but this forces the herb to operate against its nature and is a tricky undertaking.

Basil: Used in a wide variety of rituals and sachets to purify, protect, and increase harmony and well-being. If sprinkled over a sleeping lover, it will ensure both fidelity and sexual interest. Ubiquitous in spells of love and prosperity. Basil can be burned as incense in certain exorcism rituals and when sprinkled on the floor provides some protection against the physical presence of evil.

Bay: The visions of the Delphic oracle are said to have been the product of chewing bay leaves. They will also induce visions when burned and when placed under the pillow can bring prophetic dreams. In potions, bay leaves can bring a kind of clairvoyance, and when the leaves are kept on the person, they will protect against evil—although in some traditions this is reversed, and the bay’s power is said to be in its use for hexing others.

Bayberry: Traditionally used in the manufacture of candles, bayberry works as a powerful catalyst for the magical properties of other herbs—usually in a negative direction. Can be used to cause depression and to force the collection of debts. Also can be used to attract a male lover, though the bayberry’s magical complexion makes the wisdom of such a romance questionable.

Belladonna: Apart from its use in optometry to dilate pupils, belladonna has a number of magical properties. It is extremely dangerous to use, being toxic in any but the tiniest amounts. Carefully employed, however, it can be used to facilitate bilocation and astral projection, as well as visionary states. Belladonna is often used in funeral rituals to ease the passage of the soul between worlds. It is also known as nightshade, and some folklore suggests that application of belladonna can prevent someone bitten by a werewolf from becoming one.

Benzoin: Another herb whose primary use is as an intensifier. Particularly noted for its combination with cinnamon’; when burned together, these herbs bring material success. Very dangerous if used to increase the power of a hex or negative spell. Mixed and burned with dittany of Crete, sandalwood, and vanilla, benzoin forms a powerful aid to astral projection.

Bergamot: The leaves, if rubbed on money, will ensure wise spending. If placed in the wallet, they are said to attract money. Bergamot is also reputed to enhance intuition and can be used in various combinations to induce prophetic dreams.

Betony: Druidic rituals employed betony in several capacities. At midsummer, it was added to bonfires, and those who jumped through the smoke would be purified of malevolent influences. Dried and placed inside a pillow, it ensures restful sleep and wards off nightmares.

Bindweed: Useful in both protective and aggressive magic, bindweed overwhelms the intentions of its target. Depending on the other herbs in the charm, it can be employed to control another person or simply thwart his intentions. Not to be taken internally, since it is a powerful laxative and purgative.

Bistort: When used in conjunction with juniper and allspice, bistort will draw money. It is also used to help couples conceive a child.

Blackberry: Sacred to a number of pagan deities, the blackberry is a powerful protective plant. It is often used as part of a wreath, in combination with ivy and rowan, which when placed at the door will ward off evil. A blackberry bramble that grows in a natural arch is said to be both a gateway to the fairy realm and a strong healing location. If crawled through both backward and forward, the arch will cure numerous bodily ailments.

Black snakeroot: When used by a man, black snakeroot can be a powerful charm to create or destroy love. If burned with objects related to an individual, the root exerts a powerful repelling influence on that person; its opposite function is to compel love when burned with Adam and Eve root.

Blueberry: Whether eaten or used as a charm or sachet, blueberry is an extremely potent protection against treachery and deception. Eating blueberries increases an individual’s ability to resist psychic influence or assault. Placed near the door of a household, it will keep unwanted visitors away.

Buchu leaves: Native to southern Africa, buchu has been incorporated into various New World divination rituals. Burned with frank-incense, buchu can bring prophetic dreams; taken as an infusion it can strengthen powers of clairvoyance.

Burdock: In the Middle Ages, knights often rode into battle with a sprig of burdock, which was said to protect and promote healing, particularly of the feet. A charm of burdock root, gathered under a waning moon and strung around the neck, will ward away evil influences.

Cacao: Considered food of the gods by the Aztecs and often used in potions and charms to gain love or throw off malign influences. It is also used to quiet angry or restless spirits and is a standard element of Latin American séances.

Calamus: Often used as a binding element in charms or spells, calamus can also be used by itself to control an individual. Grown in a garden, it will bring luck to the gardener and enhance the yield of the plants close to it.

Calendula: More familiarly known as the marigold, calendula is used in a variety of ways. In certain rituals, it is said to give knowledge of the language of birds. Burned as incense, the petals consecrate objects intended for use in divinatory rituals. Another use of the marigold is in rituals to attain a clairvoyant state or to communicate with supernatural beings.

Camphor: Often used as part of cleansing rituals, camphor is also frequently used in charms to end unwanted romantic entanglements or lessen desire.

Caraway: Said to be a potent protective herb, especially against Lilith and malign spirits of a sexual nature. Also frequently used in spells and charms designed to beguile a lover. A parallel tradition holds that any object—for example, a wallet or purse—containing caraway seeds cannot be stolen.

Cardamom: Although it is sometimes said to have powerful properties of its own where loves and lust are concerned, cardamom is most often used to catalyze the effects of other herbs in sexual or love spells.

Carob: The pods of this plant are often used as a part of charms to attract wealth, but carob’s more esoteric uses include burning as incense to repel poltergeists or—when used by a witch—to attract a familiar.

Catnip: Once chewed by warriors before battle to increase their ferocity, catnip is used to aid in the creation of the bond between a witch and a cat familiar and is generally known to increase the intensity of psychic abilities. Also, the leaves can be dried and burned as part of love/sex rituals.

Cayenne: One of the more powerful catalysts in the herbal repertoire, especially as part of spells intended to control, cayenne is equally useful in creating or breaking hexes. It is also a strong ingredient in counter spells and can reverse the effects of a negative spell on the caster.

Cedar: The smoke of the cedar is a common ingredient in psychic rituals and is also used to prevent nightmares.

Chamomile: Traditionally used to protect from the evil eye or to break curses, chamomile is a gentle yet powerful agent in various love and prosperity rituals. Often it is used to prepare the mind and body for magic, due to its calming and centering properties.

Cinnamon: A powerful part of spells designed for psychic power or control, cinnamon is especially protective when burned in a mixture of sandalwood, frankincense, and myrrh. It is a common ingredient in spells or charms intended to capture male love or lust.

Clove: Often used to add force to a hex, cloves are powerful catalysts in spells of exorcism and purification. Also they are worn or carried to offer protection from evil spirits and in many traditions is strung over cribs to protect infants.

Clover: Generally used as a ward against evil and bad fortune, clover is also an important element in rituals of clairvoyance. Holding a four-leaf clover conveys the power to see fairies and detect the presence of spirits.

Comfrey leaf: An important part of spells to protect travelers, comfrey leaf is also incorporated into rituals of spiritual projection.

Cubeb: A form of pepper native to Indonesia, cubeb was included in medieval rituals to repel demons, particularly the incubus. This antisexual property is reversed in hoodoo practice, which often uses the berries as part of love magic.

Cumin: Mixed with salt, cumin is part of a common household charm to repel evil and bad luck. It is also used as a binding influence in spells that require a lighter touch rather than pure magical force.

Damiana: Particularly in Latin American traditions that stem from Mayan and Aztec lore, damiana is used as an aphrodisiac and component in sex magic. It is also an important part of rituals to bring about visionary states.

Dandelion: Dried and used as tea, the roots and leaves of the dandelion call spirits and enhance psychic abilities. In Celtic paganism, Samhain rituals made use of dandelion for divination.

Devil’s Bit: Often substituted for low John, or galangal, in hoodoo magic, devil’s bit adds compulsive and controlling power to whatever charm it is made part of, whether involving exorcism, love or protection.

Echinacea: Apart from its healing and protective properties, Echinacea was used in various Native American traditions as an offering to spirits, who would then strengthen the shaman’s magic.

Elder: The leaves of the elder, gathered at the right time and place, prevent witches from entering a house. It is used in divination, but the tree’s magic is ambivalent, since it is associated with witchcraft and walking under an elder can bring the attention of malign forces.

Elecampane: Named inula by the Greeks because of their belief that Helen of Troy carried a bunch of it away to Phrygia at her abduction by Paris, elecampane is a powerful element in love charms and also improves the potency of scrying rituals.

Fennel: Sacred in both the Anglo-Saxon and kabalistic traditions, fennel is part of meditative rituals and counter spells to remove hexes. In the Middle Ages, fennel was combined with St. John’s wort in a midsummer ritual to prevent witchcraft and repel evil spirits. Somewhat unpredictable, fennel can prevent possession but also twist the function of other herbs and magical processes.

Fenugreek: The Egyptians buried fenugreek in the tombs of certain pharaohs, including Tutankhamen. It is associated with luck and success.

Fig: Sacred to Dionysus and Juno, among others, the fig was also used in rituals around the Celtic holiday Beltane. Also it is an important part of divination rituals in virtually every culture where it is known.

Five Finger Grass: Also known as cinquefoil, this herb is useful in protecting against hexes, but when mixed with soot its influence reverses, and it becomes a potent hexing agent itself.

Frankincense: Used as a divinatory offering across times and cultures, frankincense is part of numerous exorcism and protection rituals as well. Often it provides a stable base around which other elements are combined into an incense. When burned in conjunction with myrrh—the feminine counterpart to its masculine association—frankincense provides a balancing influence on charms and rituals.

Galangal: Also known as low John, this root is most useful in creating change where subtle and indirect means will be more successful than direct action. A tricky and somewhat devious herb, it is, when used properly, a powerful breaker of spells and protector of health. As part of hoodoo practice, it will bring money if placed in a leather sachet with silver.

Galbanum oil: The sixteenth-century grimoire Liber Juratus refers to this oil, a simple infusion of galbanum resin. According to the Juratus, it is used in rituals aiming to contact both angels and spirits.

Garlic: Long before it was used to ward off vampires, garlic was part of Greek ritual, being places on stone cairns at crossroads as a sacrifice to Hecate. An Islamic legend states that garlic first grew out of the prints of Satan’s left foot as he left the Garden of Eden. (Onions grew from the right.) Soldiers from Roman times through the medieval period ate garlic before battle to protect them and give them courage. Garlic hung over the door of a home not only wards away evil but prevents an envious person from entering. It is a powerful protective ingredient in the charms of most cultures.

Ginger: Eaten before the performance of magic, ginger increases the power of a charm. It is particularly effective catalyst in love spells and in some Pacific cultures is used by sailors to prevent illness and forestall the approach of bad weather.

Ginseng: The name derives from jinchen, meaning “like a man,” a reference to the root’s shape. Like other herbs noted for their resemblance to parts of the body, from mandrake to John the Conqueror—ginseng is used primarily in sexual and health magic, although it has also become part of rituals to break curses.

Goofer dust: A standard ingredient in hoodoo, goofer dust almost always has some graveyard dirt in it, but beyond that, the other ingredients depend on what kind of spell you want to use it in. dried and ground-up snake heads are another common ingredient. Sometimes lizard heads. Salt and pepper are also typical, especially if the goofer dust is supposed to protect rather than attack.

Graveyard dirt: Hoodoo spells both protective and offensive use graveyard dirt as a fundamental component. The manner of collection, and the ways in which the dirt is used, dictate the effect of the spell. A hostile spell requires the collection of dirt from someone who died badly or who while alive perhaps bore the intended victim ill will. A protective spell might use the dirt from the grave of someone beloved to the practitioner or person to be protected. Graveyard dirt must be paid for by an offering—usually a Mercury dime, which highlights Mercury’s role as a psychopomp—to the spirit inhabiting the grave from which the dirt is to be dug.

Hawthorn: Long used in the rituals of protection and purification, hawthorn symbolized marriage to the Romans. They also placed it in cribs to protect infants from evil spirits. The Greeks too considered it lucky, but it became identified with witchcraft in Europe and was considered unlucky for that reason—and also perhaps because of the belief that Christ’s crown of thorns was made from hawthorn. In the British Isles, it is said that wherever oak, ash, and hawthorn grow together, fairies may be seen.

Hazel: In Celtic tradition, hazel is a tree of wisdom and inspiration. The branches are commonly used for diving rods or tied into a cross for protection or reconciliation. Hazelnuts are said to bring wisdom and visions.

Hemlock: Socrates’ downfall, hemlock has the particular property of reversing the power of any mixture to which it is added. It is much more potent in negative magics than positive and a very strong aid to most hexes.

Hemp seed: Burned as an incense, hemp seed improves scrying and divination and will attract spirit guides. It is also useful in the making of magic candles.

Hibiscus: Useful as an aphrodisiac and in love spells. Also used to induce dreams and enhance psychic ability and divination.

Holly leaf: A powerful ritual plant, holly wards away misfortune and evil, including lightning. Magical tools and implements made from its wood will be strengthened.

Holy Water: water which has been passed by a priest, or bishop for the purpose of baptism or for the blessing of persons, places or things.

Hops: Often used in tea to restore balance after the performance of magic.

Horehound: Called the “seed of Horus” by the ancient Egyptians, horehound is a strong protection against sorcery. Crushed and scattered during an exorcism ritual, it improves the prospects for success and can protect the exorcist.

Juniper: Used in Mediterranean traditions since prehistoric times, juniper has long associations with protection, exorcism, and (though later association with Jupiter) male sexual potency. A powerfully direct herb, not useful in subtler magics.

Lemongrass: A useful aid in the development of psychic powers, lemongrass also has powers in formulas designed to cause problems and bad luck in the target’s life.

Licorice: Used by the Egyptians as an aphrodisiac, licorice root is still a common ingredient in strong and direct love and potency magics.

Lilac: A clarifying and peaceful herb, lilac assists clairvoyance and past-life awareness. In combinations and sachets, it ensures that the positive qualities of the other components outweigh the negative.

Lobelia: A poison that, like other poisons, must be used with great caution. Lobelia can turn a meddlesome or annoying charm lethal.

Lotus: Associated with Egyptian magic, and referred to in Greek and Indian traditions as well, the lotus is one of the most powerful gateways to astral awareness and mystical understanding.

Madjet oil: Known from an inscription on the Temple of Horus at Edfu, this oil was intended to reconstitute the bodies of the dead in the afterlife. Its primary ingredients are cinnamon, myrrh, pine resin, and lemongrass. Historically applied to the statue of the god, it is also useful in various rituals involving contact with the dead.

Mandrake root: Because of its humanoid shape, the mandrake root has long been a powerful element in the spells of all sorts. Used in alchemical rites create homunculi, it has also been used in image magic to stand in for the human target. Tea made from the mandrake has enormous visionary power. A whole mandrake root is one of the most powerful apotropaics known to demonology; conversely, because the mandrake is traditionally said to grow beneath gallows, it is an integral power of necromantic and black-magical incantations.

Mistletoe: Apart from its holiday connection mistletoe has long been used to protect children from fairies, who cannot bring a changeling child into its presence. When burned it adds power to exorcism rituals, and it is a useful protective herb when hung about a household.

Mojo: In hoodoo folk magic, a small bag, usually made of flannel, containing a number of different items that are intended to have a magical effect.

Morning glory: Revered by the Aztecs and other Mesoamerican cultures for its powers to both prevent nightmares and induce visionary psychic states, morning glory, despite its toxicity, is widely used in infusions by the more courageous practitioners of herbal magic.

Mugwort: Popular tradition holds that John the Baptist wore a girdle of mugwort during his forty days in the wilderness, and since then, the herb has been invested with powerful qualities of divination, summoning, and prophecy. When burned with sandalwood or wormwood, it is an important component of scrying rituals, or it can be drunk as tea—usually with honey added as a binding agent—to heighten the power of divinatory rituals.

Mullein: Traditionally used as the wick in a sorcerer’s or witch’s oil lamp, mullein has a deep connection with both light and dark magics. In India, it is regarded as the most potent protective herb, and it can be substituted for graveyard dust in hoodoo charms. Various folk divinatory traditions employ mullein to prophesy love and good fortune, as well as to dispel demons.

Myrrh: Cited in the Bible as sacred, and used in purification rituals through the Middle East and Europe, myrrh enhances the power of any incense. The smoke is also used to consecrate holy tools and vessels.

Nettle: One of the nine sacred herbs of the Anglo-Saxons, nettles are used in various folk-magic traditions to capture a curse and send it back where it came from.

Oil of Abramelin: This oil is first mentioned in the demonology text The Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage. It is critical to the protection of the summoner in a demonic ritual and is composed of oil infused with cinnamon, myrrh, and galangal.

Palo Santo: Palo Santo or "Holy Wood" is a naturally perfumed resinous wood from a tree indigenous to Argentina and Paraguay. Palo Santo was known to the Incas as a spiritual remedy for purifying, cleansing, and ridding misfortune. It is used today as an aphrodisiac, a ceremonial incense, and a natural insect repellent. To burn, light a stick, allow the wood to burn briefly - less than a minute, and then blow out the flame. Enjoy the fragrant lingering smoke which results. Each stick may be re-lit and used many times, unlike conventional incense which burns completely after lighting. Palo Santo can also be burned on charcoal, or slow simmered in water to release the natural resins.

Parsley: The Greeks associated parsley with death and kept it away from the table, believing it to have sprung from the blood of Archemorus, son of Eurydice, who was killed by a dragon when abandoned by his nurse. Thereafter parsley was considered a funereal plant and was dedicated to Persephone. The Romans, however, saw it as an emblem of good fortune.

Rosemary: Versatile and useful in various magical contexts, rosemary promotes healing and purity. Used in charms and spells, it exerts a gentle binding influence. It can also be used to draw elves and fairies. Burned with charcoal, rosemary allows access to hidden knowledge.

Rue: Considered a powerful antimagical herb since Hippocrates and other Greek physicians, rue is used as protection against dark magics and also incorporated into consecration rituals. It is also considered a defense against witchcraft and can give clairvoyance.

Sage: An ambivalent but very useful herb, sage has long been associated with purification and fortune—both good and bad. Legendary for bringing prosperity and good fortune, sage must be cultivated carefully or its properties will reverse. Tradition holds that a homeowner must never plant sage in his own garden, and that unless sage is mixed in with other herbs, it will bring bad luck instead of good. Native American shamanic rituals began with the “smudging,” or purification, of the ritual space by the burning of sage.

Salt: The mediaeval Roman Catholic custom of using salt to protect infants from evil prior to their baptism is frequently alluded to in early romantic literature. In an ancient ballad entitled "The King's Daughter," the birth of a child occurs under circumstances which prevent the administration of the rite of baptism. The mother, therefore, exposes the baby in a casket, and is careful to place by its side salt and candles. In the Highlands of Scotland, instead of using salt as an amulet for the protection of young babies, it was customary for watchers to remain constantly by the cradle until the christening. For it was believed that spiteful fairies were wont to carry off healthy infants, leaving in their stead puny specimens of their own elfish offspring;--and infants thus kidnapped were sometimes kept in fairyland for seven years. Salt is not exorcised, but blessed. Salt is a sterilizer and is already considered pure. In the magical circle it is used to prevent cleansed water from absorbing any negative influences and is used to represent earth.

Scotch broom: Also known as broom top, this was a central part of druidic herbal magic. It can be boiled in salt water, and the combination of salt and the herb’s own properties will ward off spirits and dispel poltergeists. Thrown into the air, it can raise winds; burned, it can calm them.

Seaweed: Protection and summoning magic involving sailors, sea voyages, or ocean spirits often employed seaweed. In coastal areas, it is used to summon spirits and conduct séances with the ghosts of drowned sailors.

Spanish moss: In areas where it grows natively, Spanish moss is an important part of rituals to banish poltergeists as well as to bring good fortune to a household. Often local traditions using Spanish moss also employ witch bottles to trap and disarm hostile enchantments.

Star anise: Used in purification rituals and to consecrate and protect holy sites in Buddhist and Shinto traditions, star anise also is known to Western traditions for its power to ward off the evil eye and protect against nightmares. Burned as incense, the seeds increase psychic awareness.

St. John’s wort: A druidic sacred herb, St. John’s wort repels demons and evil spirits, who cannot abide its smell. Carrying it provides protection against being beguiled by fairies and spirits.

Thyme: Burned as an offering and to consecrate temples since the time of the Greeks, thyme is also widely used in protection and cleansing magic. Celtic traditions identify wild thyme as a sign that fairies have blessed a place. Contemporary pagan magic uses it as a smudging agent to purify a space before the undertaking of a spell. Worn as a sachet, it increases psychic sensitivity.

Tobacco: Spirits from most Native American and Caribbean traditions enjoy offerings of tobacco, and the dried leaves were burned to open spirit channels as well as consecrate a ceremonial space.

Van Van Oil: Van Van is an old hoodoo formula for oil, incense, sachet powders, and washing products that are designed to clear away evil, provide magical protection, open the road to new prospects, change bad luck to good, and empower amulets and charms.

Vervain: Also known as verbena, or “the witches’ herb,” vervain is powerful across a wide range of uses. Legend has it that the herb was discovered on Mount Calvary after the Crucifixion, which has meant a long association with healing and protection. The Romans decorated altars with it, and in druidic traditions it was included in lustral water, an ancestor of Christian holy water.

Willow: The expression “knock on wood” comes from the practice of knocking on the willow tree to dispel evil, and the tree has an ancient association with rituals of protection, divination, and healing. The bark, burned with sandalwood, attracts spirits, especially if burned outdoors during a waning moon.

Yarrow: The flowers dispel negative influence and aid divination, while the twigs of the plant have been used in divination rituals throughout history. Yarrow stalks are the orthodox way to cast the I Ching and have been used in numerous other fortune-telling capacities as well. Also known as devil’s nettle, yarrow can be used in summoning magics and divination involving commerce with demons.

Yucca: Native American rites used a hoop of twisted yucca fibers as a magical gateway. Jumping through the hoop would bring about transformation into animal form. A related magical practice used a smaller ring of yucca, worn on the head, as a permanent talisman enabling the wearer to assume animal form.

Irvine, A. 2007. The Supernatural Book of Monsters, Spirits, Demons, and Ghouls. HarperCollins. Appendix A.